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Leaf Functional Traits of Invasive Grasses Conferring High-Cadmium Adaptation Over Natives

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dc.contributor.author Ilyas, Muhammad
dc.contributor.author Shah, Sakhawat
dc.contributor.author Lai, Ya-Wen
dc.contributor.author Sher, Jan
dc.contributor.author Bai, Tao
dc.contributor.author Zaman, Fawad
dc.contributor.author Bibi, Farkhanda
dc.contributor.author Koul, Monika
dc.contributor.author Wani, Shabir Hussain
dc.contributor.author Majrashi, Ali
dc.contributor.author Alharby, Hesham F.
dc.contributor.author Hakeem, Khalid Rehman
dc.contributor.author Wang, Yong-Jian
dc.contributor.author Rather, Shabir A.
dc.date.accessioned 2024-02-18T04:53:20Z
dc.date.available 2024-02-18T04:53:20Z
dc.date.issued 2022-06-20
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd:8080/handle/123456789/11456
dc.description.abstract Heavy metal (HM) contamination resulting from industrialization and urbanization during the Anthropocene along with plant invasion can severely threaten the growth and adaptation of local flora. Invasive alien plant species generally exhibit a growth pattern consistent with their functional traits in non-contaminated environments in the introduced range. However, it remains unclear whether invasive alien plants have an advantage over native plants in contaminated environments and whether this growth pattern is dependent on the adaptation of their leaf functional traits. Here, we selected two congeneric pairs of invasive alien and native grasses that naturally co-exist in China and are commonly found growing in contaminated soil. To evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structural and physiological leaf traits, we grew all four species in soil contaminated without or with 80 mg/kg Cd. Invasive plants contained significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all three organs (leaf, stem, and root). They displayed a higher transfer factor and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of shoot and root than natives, indicating that invasive species are potential Cd hyperaccumulators. Invasive plants accumulated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) to higher levels than natives and showed similar patterns of leaf structural and physiological traits in response to changes in Cd bioconcentration. The quantifiable leaf structural traits of invasive plants were significantly greater (except for stomatal density and number of dead leaves) than native plants. Leaf physiological traits, chlorophyll content, and flavonoid content were also significantly higher in invasive plants than in natives under Cd stress conditions after 4 weeks, although nitrogen balance index (NBI) showed no significant difference between the two species. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased, except for the quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and the proportion of open photosystem II (qP), which increased under Cd stress conditions in both species. However, invasive plants exhibited higher fluorescence parameters than natives under Cd stress, and the decrement observed in invasive plants under Cd stress was greater than that in natives. High Cd adaptation of invasive grasses over natives suggests that invasive plants possess optimal leaf structural and physiological traits, which enable them to adapt to stressful conditions and capture resources more quickly than natives. This study further emphasizes the potential invasion of alien plants in contaminated soil environments within the introduced range. To a certain extent, some non-invasive alien plants might adapt to metalliferous environments and serve as hyperaccumulator candidates in phytoremediation projects in contaminated environments. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Daffodil International University en_US
dc.subject Metabolism en_US
dc.subject Anabolism en_US
dc.subject Neurodegeneration en_US
dc.title Leaf Functional Traits of Invasive Grasses Conferring High-Cadmium Adaptation Over Natives en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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